Diabetes Has Five Distinct Types

Diabetes Has Five Distinct Types

Researchers identified genetically marked groupings of the disease that vary by severity, age at which they most often occur and probable complications.

"Current diagnostics and classification of diabetes are insufficient and unable to predict future complications or choice of treatment", explains Professor Leif Groop, who initiated the study. Diabetes is growing faster than many other major health issues, yet the medical classification hasn't been updated in two decades.

Individuals in cluster 3 (most resistant to insulin) had a significantly higher risk of diabetic kidney disease than individuals in clusters 4 and 5, but had been prescribed similar diabetes treatment, researchers said.

One in eleven of us has been diagnosed with diabetes, but new research suggests that there could be five categories of the disease- here's why, and how it's a positive for treatment prospects...

Be that as it may, analysts in Sweden and Finland think the more confounded picture they have revealed will introduce a time of customized drug for diabetes.

"O$3 ur data suggest that the combined information from a few variables central to the development of diabetes is superior to measurement of only one metabolite, glucose", Ahlqvist said.

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Based on these parameters the participants were classified into 5 groups.

Another type of severe insulin-resistant diabetes is predominantly linked to obesity.

Their results showed that the patients could be divided in five different clusters. Clinical characteristics included early-onset of the disease and being GADA positive, along with a lower BMI, poor metabolic control, and insulin deficiency.

Cluster 2 had the highest risk of retinopathy, which can cause blindness.

The third cluster, accounting for 15.3% of the cohort, was marked by both a high degrees of insulin resistance - specifically a high HOMA2-IR index - paired with a high BMI. The authors speculated that these patients would benefit most from Metformin.

The team, from Lund University and the Institute for Molecular Medicine in Helsinki, examined data from 14,625 patients in five cohorts between January 2008 and November 2016.

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Funding was provided by the Swedish Research Council, European Research Council, Vinnova, the Academy of Finland, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Scania University Hospital, Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the European Union Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking, Vaasa Hospital, Jakobstadsnejden Heart Foundation, Folkhälsan Research Foundation, the Ollqvist Foundation and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research.

The researchers observed that people in cluster 3 had a higher risk of kidney disease, while those in cluster 2 had higher risk of diabetic eye disease than people in other clusters. He said that this would lead to more precise diagnosis and treatment of diabetes tailored to individual needs.

Type 1 diabetes is where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin - a key hormone that helps break down sugar.

A total of 10.4 per cent of people in the district have the condition, while the national average is 6.6 per cent.

Future research is also needed to test and refine the 5 types to include biomarkers, genotypes, genetic risk scores, blood pressure and blood lipids. And it only involved Scandinavian patients, so will need to be confirmed in other populations.

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